The Kyoto Protocol was adopted on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. This marked the entry into force of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, binding industrialized countries and economies in transition to reduce greenhouse gas emissions according to the agreed goals. These countries were called upon to adopt policies and measures aimed at reducing emissions, while also submitting regular reports. In particular, the aim was to reduce overall emissions by at least 5% in the five years of 2008-2012 compared to the levels of 1990, followed by the amendment of the Protocol on 8 December 2012 in Doha, which was adopted for a second commitment period from 2013 to 2020. This Amendment includes new commitments, a revised list of greenhouse gases to be submitted by the contracting parties during the second commitment period and several amendments to the articles of the Kyoto Protocol.