This section serves as a list of brief and important updates related to green transition. Content is collected via open sources, cross-checked and subsequently re-shared here. All content is handpicked by the Green Transition Observatory Team.

1New UNEP report: Without immediate action, global warming will greatly surpass Paris objectives (22 November 2023)
A recent report from the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) indicates that the Earth is on a trajectory to experience a 3°C increase in temperature by the end of the century, which is twice the target set by the Paris Agreement. To counteract this alarming trend, the Emissions Gap Report 2023 emphasizes the critical need for governments and businesses to urgently reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 42% by 2030, aiming to limit global warming to 1.5°C. The report not only provides an assessment of current and projected global greenhouse gas emissions but also delves into energy transitions in low- and middle-income countries. Additionally, it examines the role of carbon dioxide removal strategies in addressing the climate crisis. While acknowledging progress since the signing of the Paris Agreement in 2015, with a decrease in the projected 2030 emissions increase from 16% to 3%, the report stresses that further reductions of 28% and 42% are required for the 2°C and 1.5°C pathways, respectively. Implementing the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) outlined in the Paris Agreement, whether unconditional or conditional, would still result in a temperature rise of 2.9°C and 2.5°C above pre-industrial levels, respectively. The report urges all nations to expedite comprehensive, low-carbon development transformations. Recognizing the varying capacities and responsibilities of nations for emissions, it calls for more ambitious actions from those with greater capabilities, along with support for developing nations in pursuing low-emission development growth. The report also explores how enhanced implementation efforts can increase the likelihood of the upcoming 2025 Nationally Determined Contributions effectively reducing greenhouse gas emissions in 2035 to levels consistent with the 2°C and 1.5°C pathways. Additionally, it assesses the potential and risks associated with Carbon Dioxide Removal methods, including nature-based solutions and direct air carbon capture and storage.

2Global Coalition Grows: Over 60 countries back ambitious renewable energy and coal phase-out pledge (10 November 2023)
Officials familiar with the matter have revealed that over 60 countries are endorsing a proposal led by the European Union, United States, and United Arab Emirates to triple renewable energy production in the coming decade while transitioning away from coal. This initiative is being promoted in anticipation of the U.N.'s COP28 climate negotiations, scheduled from Nov. 30 to Dec. 12 in Dubai. The EU, U.S., and UAE are seeking global leader support for the pledge, with a push for its inclusion in the final outcome of a meeting on Dec. 2. Several nations, including Nigeria, South Africa, Vietnam, Australia, Japan, Canada, Peru, Chile, Zambia, and Barbados, have expressed their intent to join. The proposed commitment, outlined in a draft reviewed by Reuters, also involves doubling the annual rate of energy efficiency improvement to 4% until 2030. It emphasizes the necessity of concurrently reducing reliance on unabated coal power, including discontinuing the funding of new coal-fired plants. Negotiations with China and India to join the pledge are reportedly in advanced stages. Scientists stress that both expanding clean energy and swiftly reducing CO2-emitting fossil fuels are crucial to mitigating severe climate change. Officials believe early support for this initiative will generate momentum and foster a positive atmosphere for the potentially challenging discussions at the climate conference.

3Interwoven Perils: How Climate Change and Conflict Fuel Vulnerability in 14 Nations (24 October 2023)

Climate change and conflict are linked, with 14 countries currently experiencing armed violence, including Yemen, Afghanistan, Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. These countries struggle to adapt to climate change due to internal divisions or ongoing violence. Climate change can also inflame existing tensions over access to diminishing necessities, making them more vulnerable. The escalating violence in the Gaza Strip has made its population more vulnerable than ever. The ripple effects of conflict and climate change can trigger far-reaching devastation, especially in land issues and resources. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) found that the ripple effects of conflict and climate change can trigger far-reaching devastation, especially in the Sahel and Lake Chad regions. Instability in the region has led to cattle herders and farmers settling in areas with armed violence, competing with locals for space and resources. Authorities who typically help settle disputes have withdrawn from certain areas due to security concerns, leading to clashes. As a result, armed groups are increasingly weighing in on the violence.

Somalia, one of the world's most climate-vulnerable countries, has been facing decades of conflict and severe droughts, leading to over 3.8 million people being displaced. Land issues and disputes have exacerbated tensions, with land occupation prevalent in South-Central Somalia. Armaged conflict and climate change are the main drivers for food insecurity, with conflict having drastic spill-over effects, especially when countries involved are key producers or exporters of basic goods. Armaged conflict can also wreak havoc on a country's natural environment, with over 80% of conflicts taking place in biodiversity hotspots. Environmental degradation triggers a vicious cycle, contributing to climate change and reducing a population's capacity to adapt. Gaza, home to 2.2 million people, faces a dire lack of infrastructure and sanitation, rising temperatures, declining precipitation, rising sea levels, and more frequent extreme weather events. The Palestinian Territories are among the 25 regions most vulnerable to climate change, with no place to run from the situation.

Climate change adaptation requires a significant social, economic, and cultural overhaul, with countries ranked lowest being most vulnerable and least prepared to deal with stressors. Conflicts can lead to the destruction of essential services like water, school, and health centers, affecting the economy and social cohesion. The International Commission for Resilience (ICRC) highlights a gap in funding for climate action between stable and fragile countries, with many financially neglected due to conflict. Even stable countries like France and Switzerland struggle to adapt to a changing climate. The ICRC is working on strengthening Gaza's resilience and building resilience to both conflict and climate change shocks. The organization is working to ensure water points continue to function even if electricity production is affected.

4Nations Urge Accelerated Fossil Fuel Transition Ahead of Cop28 Climate Talks (16 October 2023)

Six weeks before the Cop28 climate talks, negotiators from Africa and India have presented separate plans to urge developed countries to take more significant steps in transitioning away from fossil fuels.

The African Group of negotiators is calling for rich nations to halt approval of new fossil fuel production projects by 2030. Meanwhile, India is advocating for these countries to not only achieve net-zero emissions but also actively remove carbon from the atmosphere by 2050.

These proposals align with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" in UN climate talks, where wealthier nations, primarily responsible for climate change, should take the lead in addressing it. However, rich nations like the European Union are focusing on global objectives, such as tripling renewable energy capacity by 2030 and phasing out fossil fuels globally well before 2050.

Despite some restrictions on supporting fossil fuel projects abroad, major nations like the US, UK, Australia, and Norway continue to approve domestic oil and gas production without setting end dates. The African Group of Negotiators has called for "differentiated pathways," emphasizing a halt to fossil fuel exploration in developed countries well ahead of 2030, while giving developing nations the opportunity to close the global supply gap in the short term.

However, it's worth noting that a 2021 UN report contradicts claims of a fossil fuel supply gap, revealing that governments worldwide plan to produce more than double the amount of fossil fuels in 2030 than is compatible with limiting global warming to 1.5°C. Most of this increased production comes from developing nations like Saudi Arabia, Russia, and India. Denmark and Costa Rica have formed the Beyond Oil and Gas Alliance, pledging to cease production of these fossil fuels. African climate campaigner Thuli Makama argues against approving new fossil fuel extraction projects in Africa or elsewhere, emphasizing that these projects hinder development in renewable energy and green economy sectors in the continent while primarily benefiting wealthy countries' companies.

The African Group also calls for wealthy nations to provide more financial support to developing countries for climate change mitigation, adaptation, and addressing loss and damage. They propose $200-400 billion annually for loss and damage and an additional $400 billion per year for climate change adaptation by 2030, in addition to emissions reduction funding.

India's submission to the UN stocktake suggests that developed nations should reach net-negative emissions by 2050, which aligns with the goal of achieving global net-zero emissions. This proposal is supported by experts who argue that developed countries have exhausted their carbon budget, and achieving 1.5°C targets should not fall on the developing world. Antonio Guterres, the head of the UN, had previously called for developed nations to reach net-zero by 2040, but his proposal received limited attention from both developed and developing countries.


5Unveiling the Climate Debate: E-Fuels, Electric Vehicles, and Misinformation (13 October 2023)
In February, Daniel Caspary, the leader of Germany's governing party in the European Parliament, argued against a proposed Europe-wide ban on internal combustion vehicles by 2035, suggesting that it's essential to achieve climate targets but wrong to rely solely on one solution. He expressed confidence in the intelligence of engineers worldwide to develop innovative solutions in the future. As a climate journalist, it's crucial to understand not only the nature of climate misinformation but also its sources and motivations. While outright climate denial is becoming rarer, the more prevalent issue is "climate delay," which posits that addressing climate change can wait or is too costly. However, scientists have debunked these claims, making it challenging for journalists to combat them. Caspary's statement, while sounding reasonable, contradicts the clear evidence that focusing on e-fuels might only delay emissions reductions. E-fuel supplies are projected to be insufficient by 2035, and the emissions from e-fueled cars are significantly higher than electric vehicles. Germany and Austria, home to the traditional auto industry, have vested interests in promoting e-fuels. China has become a global leader in electric vehicle production, and their imports into Germany have surged. Austrian Chancellor Karl Nehammer also resists the shift to e-vehicles and has made skeptical comments about climate change. To comprehend the implications of this misinformation, journalists must investigate the details. Austria aims to be climate neutral by 2040, but there is no binding climate protection law to support this goal. Journalists need to scrutinize the environmental impact of proposed solutions, the interests behind them, and whether they genuinely contribute to climate action or merely serve as marketing or delay tactics for more meaningful policies.


660,000 Swiss protest against climate change (1 October 2023)
On September 30, 60,000 Swiss demonstrated in the Swiss capital, Bern, demanding more immediate government action to tackle the climate crisis. The Swiss are protesting just days before the upcoming elections, putting pressure on the government and candidates for more effective measures to protect the environment. Evidence of the seriousness of climate change is the melting of 10% of Switzerland's glaciers in two years. Even though the government has approved a draft law to reduce and eliminate gas emissions by 2050 with financial subsidies and the promotion of RES, it will not be implemented until 2025.


7 France, England, and Germany question the EU's environmental policy (25 September 2023)
French President Emmanuel. Macron has decided to differentiate and question, like the British Prime Minister, the directions of the European Union on environmental policy. President Macron is talking about measures that will give incentives to the French towards the green transition, not a means of imposing them, with the ultimate goal of halving carbon emissions by 2030. The package of measures "planning écologique" will not burden them financially as citizens of France (with extrajudicial fines), adding 7 billion euros to the budget for energy efficiency of buildings, the development of energy technologies, and the development of forest areas. The imposition of direct sanctions on polluting companies is also cancelled; instead, grants will be made for energy development and pollution reduction (45%). In addition to the above measures, cancel the ban on oil or natural gas boilers until there is sufficient production of heat pumps in 2027, which will be subsidised by the French state.


8Great Britain Pledges $1.6 Billion to the Green Climate Fund: A Crucial Step Towards a $5.9 Trillion Clean Air Goal by 2030 (20 September 2023)
Great Britain made a commitment to finance 1.6 billion dollars in the Green Climate Fund. The fund was created by member states of the United Nations with the aim of helping underdeveloped countries reach their environmental protection goals. The money from the fund will be invested in the reduction of atmospheric pollutants, renewable energy sources, and so on. With England's commitment, the G20 statement says around $5.9 trillion will be needed before 2030 to reduce air pollutants to the desired effect.


9Draft UN plastics treaty threatens Big Oil’s plan B ( 08 September 2023)
The UN is in the planning phase of a new treaty that will limit the production of plastic materials. In the upcoming session, the states will meet in November for the third phase of the talks in Nairobi, where they will be called upon to decide on one of the pre-planned options. The options that one of these UN member states will be asked to decide are to commit to stopping the increase in plastic production with a maximum production limit that will be agreed upon, or another option is for the states to comply by taking the necessary measures to reduce production without any commitment to a specific target. In addition to polluting the planet, the production of plastics causes 3% of the air pollution. Air pollution is the reason that recycling does not solve the problem to the desired effect, as explained by the European Union. The reduction in plastic production will significantly affect the economies of major oil and gas producing countries such as the US and Saudi Arabia, which are blindsided.


10Germany's ambitious greenhouse emission reduction goals at risk of missing targets (22 August 2023)
Germany's goal of reducing greenhouse emissions by 65% by 2030 appears likely to be missed, casting doubt on its longer-term net-zero target of 2045. Reports from government climate advisors and the Federal Environment Agency reveal these shortcomings. Despite being a climate leader in the EU and having more ambitious targets, political and economic factors in many countries have diverted attention from the climate crisis. Although Germany achieved a 40% reduction in CO2 levels from 1990 by last year, experts contend this is insufficient. The building and transport sectors are notably struggling to implement necessary measures, with the buildings sector projected to fall 35 million tonnes of CO2 short of its 2030 target, and the transport sector potentially exceeding emissions targets by 117-191 million tonnes. Another report from the Federal Environment Agency highlights that Germany's planned and existing climate policies won't allow it to achieve climate neutrality by 2045. The current policies would lead to emitting 229 million tonnes of greenhouse gases by 2045, undermining the country's climate goals. The government asserts that policies implemented since 2021 will address a significant portion of the excess CO2 emissions, and they will consider the advisors' recommendations to get back on track. The reports also point to policy changes diluting efforts, such as easing the phase-out of oil and gas heating systems, and insufficient focus on private vehicle transport. A non-profit group, Deutsche Umwelthilfe (DUH), advocates for an emergency climate program, especially for the struggling transport sector. They intend to take legal action to enforce a speed limit on German motorways and reduce environmentally harmful government subsidies.


11Transforming Europe's Soil: Advancing Sustainability and Health through Historic Legislation (13 July 2023)
The European Union is making significant progress in supporting the sustainability of its soil. For the first time in the history of the European Union, legislation has been adopted on soil health. On 5 July 2023, the European Commission adopted a package of measures regarding the sustainability and health of its soils, aimed at increasing the resilience of Europe's food and farming systems. The proposed legislation offers a harmonised definition of soil health, but also a comprehensive framework for monitoring and promoting sustainable soil management and remediation of contaminated sites. According to the European
Commission, 60-70% of its soils remain unhealthy, while billions of tons of soil are washed away each year due to erosion, incurring estimated costs of more than 50 billion each year. The European Union has set itself the goal of having healthy soils by 2050, which will bring both environmental advantages and provide additional income opportunities in agriculture and land management.


12The Paris climate meeting comes to a close without a worldwide shipping tax agreement (23 June 2023)

A summit held in Paris aimed at addressing climate change and poverty concluded without reaching an agreement on implementing a tax on greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping. The two-day gathering, hosted by French President Emmanuel Macron and attended by world leaders and finance officials, including representatives from the US, China, Brazil, and the European Commission, focused on the creation of a new global financing pact. While the idea of a global tax on shipping emissions has gained support and could be adopted by the International Maritime Organization in July, Macron suggested that China and the US were not in favor of the proposal. The tax would generate funds to assist developing countries in tackling climate change. Although no formal decisions were made at the summit, the International Monetary Fund made $100 billion worth of assets available to vulnerable countries, and debt relief for poor nations was discussed. However, proposals for taxes on the fossil fuel industry and financial transactions received limited support from wealthy nations.


13Paris conference aims to promote an international agreement on climate action and restructuring of debts (19 June 2023)

World leaders will convene in Paris for the Summit for a New Global Financial Pact, which seeks to address the challenges posed by climate change and devise innovative approaches to global financing. Over two days, heads of state and government will discuss various ideas, including levies on shipping, fossil fuels, and financial transactions, as well as reforms to international financial institutions. The French Presidency views the summit as a platform for sharing ideas before upcoming economic and climate meetings. Developing nations, particularly the V20 group representing countries at the forefront of climate impacts, are eager to see tangible progress and a restructuring of the global financial system to align with climate goals by 2030. Trust in financing commitments from wealthier nations is limited. The summit aims to provide political momentum for an international carbon emissions tax on shipping, establish clear timelines, and take concrete actions. Concerns arise as leaders from wealthier countries have limited attendance, raising questions about unity and commitment to reform. The World Bank plans to increase lending capacity, and there is growing support for redirecting subsidies from fossil fuels to climate initiatives. The summit intends to bridge the gap between aspirations and implementation, fulfill existing promises, secure additional financial resources, address debt issues, and advocate for reforms in line with climate and biodiversity objectives. However, there is a disparity between the summit's stated ambitions and the actual execution of its goals.


14Coordinated Propaganda Campaign: Fake Social Media Profiles Target Cop28 (6 June 2023)

Experts have identified an organized campaign involving fake social media profiles spreading propaganda messages about Cop28 and defending the United Arab Emirates (UAE) against criticism. These profiles, posing as individuals from the UAE, publish similar positive content and engage in replies to campaigners and journalists. Around a hundred profiles engaged in such behavior have been identified, some of which were suspended by Twitter after being exposed. However, many others are still active, having transformed into different personas overnight. Analysis of these profiles suggests a coordinated attempt to promote the UAE, particularly regarding Cop28 and other UAE policies. While proving the identity of those behind the accounts is challenging, it is suspected that a PR firm working for an entity in the UAE may be running this operation. Some of the fake accounts mimic the language used by the UAE government or post identical tweets. The activities of one example, 'Viyan Mahmud,' were closely examined, demonstrating a pattern of posting similar messages to the official Cop28 account. After being exposed, this account underwent a complete makeover and changed its name to 'Amina Mahi.' Similar instances of fake profiles acting together to counter criticism have been observed. The Cop28 hosts, including Sultan Al Jaber, have faced previous criticism, such as his appointment as the climate summit's head and the invitation to Bashar al-Assad. The UAE's promotion of phasing out "fossil fuel emissions" instead of fossil fuels has also drawn scrutiny. The Cop28 hosts have previously been accused of attempting to control the online narrative, including editing Wikipedia pages related to Sultan Al Jaber's role as an oil executive.


15As the UN climate group raises the alarm, more insurers abandon the net-zero partnership (26 May 2023)

Insurers' attempts to price climate risks are being disrupted by "political attacks," according to a coalition of financial groups backed by the United Nations. The statement came after five insurers, including QBE Insurance, Allianz, AXA, SCOR, and SOMPO Holdings, withdrew from the Net-Zero Insurance Alliance (NZIA) within a 24-hour period following pressure from U.S. Republican attorney generals who accused them of violating antitrust laws. The departure of these insurers, along with four others, has raised concerns about the viability of the NZIA, which requires members to commit to achieving net-zero greenhouse gas emissions in their investment portfolios by 2050. The CEO of Lloyd's of London, John Neal, has urged the alliance to revise its membership rules to prevent further departures. Despite these challenges, some NZIA members, including Aviva, are urging the alliance to continue its efforts. The UN-backed Glasgow Financial Alliance for Net Zero (GFANZ), led by former Bank of England Governor Mark Carney, plans to engage with remaining NZIA members individually to find a resolution. Republican politicians have been campaigning against financial institutions collaborating on carbon emissions reduction, as part of a wider backlash against businesses incorporating environmental, social, and governance factors in their decision-making. While legal experts believe it would be difficult to make a legal case against insurers for violating antitrust laws, the insurers are concerned about confronting U.S. Republicans. The NZIA now has 22 members, and GFANZ is committed to supporting insurers' climate risk management and transition plans despite the challenges.


16Japanese Prime Minister Kishida has increased the G7's guest list in order to strengthen connections with middle-power countries (20 May 2023)

The Group of Seven (G7) summit, hosted by Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida, has expanded its guest list to include more countries beyond its traditional members. This expansion aims to strengthen ties with middle-power countries and those in the Global South, as the forum seeks to address global challenges such as Russia's war in Ukraine, China's rise, food security, and climate change. While the G7 traditionally consists of the United States, Canada, Japan, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, and the European Union, non-member countries like India, Poland, and Spain have been invited in previous years. In the current summit, leaders from 16 countries, along with the EU, are attending. The G7's efforts to pressure Russia on the Ukraine conflict have faced limited international support, with most countries choosing not to take sides. While the G7's share of the global economy has decreased over the years, Japan aims to strengthen its ties with the Global South, recognizing its growing market share and GDP contribution. The expanded focus of the G7 reflects a recognition of the need for greater inclusivity and the amplification of voices from the neglected Global South. However, critics argue that the G7's interest in involving the Global South may be insincere, citing issues like debt repayments and inadequate aid and funding for climate action. Oxfam International has highlighted the disparity between the demands of G7 countries for debt repayments from low and middle-income countries, despite owing significant unpaid aid and climate funding themselves. The organization emphasizes that the rich world owes the Global South in terms of unfulfilled promises, climate damage costs, and the historical legacy of colonialism and slavery.


17Support grows for Europe's campaign for a global renewable energy target (5 May 2023)

The European Union (EU) has gained support for its call for the world to set a target to triple renewable energy capacity by 2030 at a meeting of 40 global climate officials in Berlin. Supporters of the proposal, which has not met significant opposition, include the United Arab Emirates, the US, Chile, Colombia, and representatives of small island states. The head of the EU’s Commission, Ursula Von der Leyen, first suggested global renewable and energy efficiency targets at a US-hosted climate summit two weeks ago. The tripling target is based on work carried out by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the International Renewable Energy Agency (Irena). The IEA has said that the world currently has about 3,300 GW of renewable energy capacity, and in order to limit global warming to 1.5C, about 1,000 GW should be added every year to 2030, roughly tripling the total amount to 10,350 GW. While the renewables target did not meet significant opposition, a proposal to phase out fossil fuels is much more controversial. Chile’s environment minister Maisa Rojas has said that renewable and energy efficiency targets have to go “hand in hand” with the phase-out of fossil fuels.


18Germany commits to giving the worldwide Green Climate Fund €2 billion (3 May 2023)

Germany's leader Olaf Scholz has pledged €2bn ($2.2bn) to the United Nations' Green Climate Fund to support climate investment during 2024-2027. The fund, established in 2010, is designed to distribute money from wealthy countries to climate projects in low- and middle-income nations. It has spent about $12bn on funding climate projects to date, but has warned of cutbacks due to a lack of resources. Scholz's pledge, announced at the Petersberg Climate Dialogue in Berlin, sets the bar for other wealthy nations ahead of the fund's regular pledging conference in Bonn in October. The commitment is a third higher than Germany's previous contribution. Austria has made a pledge of €0.16bn. Joe Thwaites, a climate finance campaigner at the National Resources Defense Council, said the move was a "critical signal of support to developing countries" and "sets a benchmark for other countries who also need to step up with increased contributions".


19World Economic Forum: Green jobs are the way of the future as labor markets evolve as a result of climate change (1 May 2023)

The World Economic Forum’s Future of Jobs report has revealed that green roles have outpaced the overall hiring rate globally for the last four years, making them a safe bet in a cooling labour market. LinkedIn data shows that jobs in sustainability, such as sustainability analysts, specialists, and managers, are among the fastest-growing roles globally over the same period. However, the demand for green talent far exceeds the supply, as only 13% of the labour workforce has the green skills that organisations require. Even though global demand for green skills has risen by 40% since 2015, we aren’t upskilling professionals quickly enough to meet net-zero targets.

Furthermore, many green skills are used in non-traditionally green jobs such as fleet managers, data scientists, or health workers, indicating the potential to transform working lives. Green skills are also helping transform fossil fuel-heavy sectors in high-emission countries like manufacturing, oil and gas, and mining, which have the highest levels of “green skill intensity”. Germany is adopting more green skills in its manufacturing industry than the global average, while India and the US lead the way in the oil and gas, and mining sectors.

However, sustainability is non-negotiable, and job seekers are increasingly considering a company's culture and values, with 26% of adults surveyed in Europe stating that sustainability is one of their top non-negotiables when evaluating a company's culture and values. To manage this green labour market transition, we need more workers with green skills and need them urgently. Policy-makers must commit to green skills, businesses must invest in upskilling current and future green talent, and the global workforce must build green skills to power change and compete for the best jobs. LinkedIn has made available free courses to help professionals learn how to be more sustainable at work and at home, as well as how companies can embrace sustainability as an opportunity to innovate their businesses. To save the planet, we must put climate change at the center of discussions on the state of the labor market and the future of jobs.


20The first CO2 tariff in history is supported by the European Parliament (18 Apr. 2023)

The European Parliament has approved a significant overhaul of the EU’s carbon market and climate change policies. The deal includes a revamp of Europe’s carbon market, which will increase the cost of polluting across the continent. Since 2005, the market has reduced CO2 emissions from power plants and factories by 43%. However, the changes are aimed at hitting more ambitious EU climate change targets. The upgrade will mean that factories lose the free CO2 permits they currently receive by 2034, and shipping emissions will be added to the CO2 market from 2024. The reforms will also introduce the world’s first carbon border levy. From 2026, a levy on imports of high-carbon goods will target imports of steel, cement, aluminium, fertilisers, electricity, and hydrogen. The carbon border adjustment border mechanism (CBAM) aims to prevent EU industries from being undercut by more-polluting foreign competitors, removing the temptation for EU firms to relocate to regions with lax environmental rules.

The reforms also include plans to launch a new EU carbon market covering emissions from fuels used in cars and buildings in 2027, plus an €86.7 billion EU fund to support households affected by the costs. However, concerns have been raised that the plan will add 10 euro cents to the price of petrol and diesel, sparking fears of social unrest like the 2018 yellow vests movement in France. The reforms were adopted with a large majority, signaling broad political support in Parliament. The laws still need final approval from EU countries, who will assess them in the next few weeks. The European Commission has welcomed the vote as a crucial step for climate action and the EU’s objective of cutting emissions 55% below 1990 levels by 2030.


21Despite no new timetable, the G7 promises to stop using fossil fuels sooner (16 Apr. 2023)

The G7 group of industrialised nations has pledged to end the use of fossil fuels in their energy sectors by 2035 and urged other countries to follow suit. But the group failed to agree on any new deadlines for ending the use of fossil fuels in general. Host nation Japan led opposition to the most ambitious proposals, citing concerns over energy security. The G7 ministers also called for an end to new plastic pollution by 2040, and urged global greenhouse emissions to peak by 2025. The group did not endorse Japan's strategy of burning hydrogen and ammonia alongside fossil fuels to reduce emissions, stating that some countries were exploring the potential of hydrogen fuels, which should be aligned with a 1.5C pathway. The G7 has previously said that Russia's war in Ukraine made gas investments "appropriate as a temporary response". Fatih Birol, executive director of the International Energy Agency, said the statement took account of both energy security and the need to deal with the climate crisis.


22UN approves International Court of Justice's involvement in combating climate change (30 Mar. 2023)

The International Court of Justice (ICJ) will be consulted to determine what legal obligations nations have to protect climate systems and those impacted by climate change, according to a resolution passed by the United Nations General Assembly that was put forth by the island nation of Vanuatu in the South Pacific. The resolution was co-sponsored by 132 nations and was unanimously approved on Wednesday, 29th March. The UN now has the authority to ask the ICJ for guidance on whether nations are legally required to protect the present and future generations from climate change.

Additionally, it will ask the ICJ for guidance on the legal repercussions for states that, "by their acts and omissions," impair the climate to the point that it impacts others, particularly tiny island states and their inhabitants who are among the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. According to the Associated Press, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres expressed his hope that when the court's ruling is released, it will inspire governments "to adopt the bolder and stronger climate action that our world so sorely needs." Vanuatu, an archipelago of over 80 islands spanning 1,300 km (807 miles) and struck by two Category 4 cyclones in the span of three days earlier this month, was in the forefront of the project.


23Video message from the Secretary-General to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's 58th Session (13 Mar. 2023)

Watch as the Secretary-General addresses the evidence behind climate destruction based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change as well as the urgency for climate action.