Information on elections

On 14 May (first round) and on 28 May (second round), presidential elections were held in Turkey. The results are as follows:

Electoral results
First round

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan: 26,859,313 votes, 49.42%
Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu: 24,430,618 votes, 44.95%
Sinan Oğan: 2,824,118 votes, 5.20%
Muharrem İnce: 235,618 votes, 0.43%

Second round

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (elected president): 27,725,131 votes, 52.16%
Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu: 25,432,951 votes, 47.84%
Source: Anadolu

About the electoral system

The President of Turkey is chosen directly through a two-round system, where a candidate needs to secure a simple majority (over 50%) of the popular vote to win. If no candidate achieves a majority in the first round, a second round, known as a runoff, is held between the two candidates with the highest number of votes. The winner of the runoff becomes the elected President. In 2014, the first direct election for the Turkish presidency took place following a 2007 referendum that abolished the previous system, in which the head of state was elected by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The President of Turkey is limited to a maximum of two terms, each lasting five years. However, if snap elections occur before the completion of the second term, a third term would be permitted. Snap elections can be called either with the consent of 60% of the Members of Parliament in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey or through a presidential decree. Only snap elections approved by the Grand National Assembly during a president's second term would enable the president to serve a third term. Political parties that have secured a minimum of 5% of the vote in the previous parliamentary election can nominate a candidate. However, parties that fail to meet this threshold can form alliances and jointly field candidates, as long as their combined vote share exceeds 5%. Independent candidates can run if they gather 100,000 signatures from the electorate. The Supreme Election Council (YSK) oversees the electoral process.

Selected articles

Turkey election results 2023: what we know so far, 15 May, (The Guardian)

Erdogan wins Turkish election, extending rule to third decade, 28 May, (CNN)

Turkish election victory for Erdogan leaves nation divided, 29 May, (BBC)