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    Area: 309,500 km2 (0% water)
    Coastline: 2,092 km
    Terrain: Central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south
    Highest point: Jabal Shams 3,004 m (northeast Oman)
    Climate: dry desert; hot, humid along the coast; hot, dry interior
    Geographical population distribution: Most of the population is concentrated in northern Oman; about 40% of the population is concentrated in coastal cities along the Gulf of Oman.
    Natural resources: petroleum, copper, asbestos, marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas


    Population: 5,106,620 (2020)

    Annual population growth: 2.6% (2020)

    Population estimate in 2025: 5,573,000

    Population distribution by age (2020)
    0-14 – 22%
    15-64 – 75%

    65+ – 3%

    Fertility rate (births per woman): 2.8 (2019)

    Birth rate (births per 1000 people): 19 (2019)

    Death rate (deaths per 1000 people): 2 (2019)

    Median age: 29 years (2015)

    Life expectancy (at birth): 78 years (2019)
    Males – 76 years

    Females – 80 years

    Net migration: 437,000 people (2017)

    Language: Arabic is the official language

    Religious groups: Ibadi Muslim 49.8%, Sunni Muslim 34.9%, Shia Muslim 6.2%, Hindu 2.9%, Catholic Christian 2.8%, Other religions 1.9%, Other Christian 1.2%, Non-religious/atheists 0.2% (2015)

    Ethnic groups: Arab 56.7%, Baloch 18.4%, Persian 3.2%, Other 21.8% (2013)


    GDP: $64.65 bil (2020)

    GDP per capita: GDP per capita: $12,659.7 (2020)

    GDP annual growth rate: -0.8% (2019)

    Public debt (% GDP): 59.9% (2019)

    Inflation (CPI): -0.9% (2020)

    Unemployment: 5% (2020)

    Imports: $ 29,800,000,000 (2017)
    10 largest import partners (% total imports - 2017): UAE 34%, Japan 7.4%, UK 6.8%, China 6.3%, India 5.4%, USA 4.0%, Saudi Arabia 3.0%, Germany 2.9%, Brazil 2.3%, South Korea 2.1%

    Exports: $31,200,000,000 (2017)
    10 largest export partners (% total exports - 2017): China 39%, India 9.2%, UAE 7.2%, South Korea 6.8%, Japan 5.5%, Qatar 4.3%, Saudi Arabia 4.2%, USA 2.9%, South Africa 2.0%, Pakistan 1.9%

    Global Competitiveness Report (World Economic Forum)
    63.6/100 (2019 – position 53/141)

    Index of Economic Freedom (Heritage Foundation)
    64.6/100 (2021 – position 71/180)

    Income Inequality Index (Gini – World Bank)

    Prosperity Index (Legatum Institute)
    60.30/100 (2021 – position 67/167)

    Politics and Government

    Form of government: Absolute monarchy

    Sultan: Haitham bin Tariq (2020)

    Executive branch: The Sultan acts as both the head of state and of government, while he directly appoints the Council of Ministers. In case the throne is vacant, the Royal Family Council appoints the successor. However, if the Royal Family Council cannot select the successor, the new Sultan shall be the person designated by the previous Sultan in a letter addressed to the Royal Family Council.

    Legislative branch: The Council of Oman is the country's parliament and has limited legislative powers since it can only suggest legislation which will be assessed by the Council of Ministers or suggest amendments to bills that have been proposed by the Council of Ministers. All laws are published by the Sultan. The Majlis al-Dawla (Council of State) is the upper chamber of parliament; it consists of 85 members (including its president) who are all appointed by the Sultan for a 4-year term. The Majlis al-Shura (Consultative Council) is the lower chamber of parliament and it consists of 85 representatives who are elected in direct elections by citizens for a 4-year term.

    Judicial branch: The Sultan appoints all judges and serves as head of the Supreme Judicial Council which was founded in 2012 to oversee the judiciary and implement the policies that govern it. All the members of the Supreme Judicial Council are appointed by the Sultan. The Supreme Court is the highest court of the country, while the court system also includes First Instance Courts, Courts of Appeal, a Criminal Court, an Administrative Court, military courts and Islamic courts.

    Parliamentary parties: Political parties are forbidden by law.

    Last elections: Elections for the Μajlis al-Shura in 2019 – Turnout was 49.02% out of 713,335 voters
    Next elections: Municipal elections 2020 (date has not been announced)

    Rule of Law - Human Rights

    Corruption Perceptions Index (Transparency International)
    54/100 (2020 - position 49/180)

    Rule of Law Index (World Justice Project)

    Global Terrorism Index (Institute for Economics & Peace)
    0/10 (2019 – position 138/163)

    Fragile States Index (Fund For Peace)
    50.4/120 (2021 – position 136/179)

    Democracy Index (Economist Intelligence Unit)
    3.00/10 (2020 – position 136/167)

    Press Freedom Index (Reporters Without Borders)
    43.37/100 (2020 – position 133/180)

    Freedom in the World Index (Freedom House)
    23/100 (2021)


    United Nations (UN – Population Division, UNdata), Observatory of Economic Complexity (OEC), World Bank, Federal Reserve Economic Data (FRED – St. Louis Fed), Composition of Religious and Ethnic Group Project (CREG – Cline Center for Advanced Social Research, University of Illinois), Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), Transformation Index BTI (Bertelsmann Stiftung), Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU), Oman Government Portal, NationMaster