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    Area: 1,001,450 km2 (0,6% water)
    Coastline: 2,450 km
    Terrain: Desert with the exception of the fertile Nile region
    Highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m (in the Sinai peninsula)
    Climate: Hot and dry summers, mild winters
    Geographical population distribution: The population is concentrated in the Nile region. Almost all inhabited areas of the country are located in the Nile’s Delta and alongside the river
    Natural resources: petroleum, gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, tin, rare earth elements


    Population: 102,334,400 (2020)

    Annual population growth: 1.9% (2020)

    Population estimate in 2025: 117,728,000

    Population distribution by age group (2020)
    0-14 – 34%
    15-64 – 61%
    65+ – 5%

    Fertility rate (births per woman): 3.3 (2019)

    Birth rate (births per 1000 people): 26 (2019)

    Death rate (deaths per 1000 people): 6 (2019)

    Median age: 24.3 years (2015)

    Life expectancy (at birth): 72 years (2019)
    Males – 70 years

    Females – 74 years

    Net migration: -190,000 people (2017)

    Language: Arabic is the official language of Egypt

    Religious groups: Sunni Muslims 88.3%, Christians 9.3% (Copts), Other Christians 1.6%, Non-religious/atheists 0.6%, Other Muslims 0.2% (2015)

    Ethnic groups: Arabs 97.9%, Others 2.1% (2013)


    GDP: $365.25 bil (2020)

    GDP per capita: $3,569.2 (2020)

    GDP annual growth rate: 3.6% (2020)

    Public debt (% GDP): 89.87% (2019)

    Inflation (CPI): 5.0% (2020)

    Unemployment: 10.4% (2020)

    Imports: $78,7 bil (2019)

    5 largest import partners (% total imports - 2019): China 15.31%, United States 6.63%, Saudi Arabia 6.63%, Germany 5.52%, Turkey 4.67%

    Exports: $30,6 bil (2019)

    5 largest export partners (% total exports - 2019): United States 7.24%, United Arab Emirates 6.76%, Turkey 5.69%, Saudi Arabia 5.56%, Italy 5.53%

    Global Competitiveness Report (World Economic Forum)

    54.5/100 (2019 – position 93/141)

    Index of Economic Freedom (Heritage Foundation)

    55.7/100 (2021 – position 130/180)

    Income Inequality Index (Gini – World Bank)

    31.5% (2017)

    Prosperity Index (Legatum Institute)

    46.56/100 (2021 – position 121/167)

    Military Power

    Active personnel: 450,000

    Army: 325,000
    Navy: 18,000
    Airforce: 30,000
    Αir defence: 75,000

    Defence expenditure (% GDP): 1.2% (2020)

    Politics and Government

    Form of government: Semi-presidential

    President: Abdel Fattah el-Sisi (2014)

    Prime Minister: Mostafa Madbouli (2018)

    Executive branch: The President is the leader of the executive branch and head of state. He is elected for a 6-year term and is permitted to serve up to two consecutive terms. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President and approved by the Parliament. As the head of government, the Prime Minister selects his ministers and the government is then approved by the Parliament.

    Legislative branch: After the constitutional amendments of 2019, the Parliament will consist of two chambers: the House of Representatives (lower house) comprised of at least 450 members and the Senate (upper house) comprised of at least 180 members. The members of the House of Representatives are elected directly by the citizens while a quarter (112) of the seats are reserved for women. The President appoints 60 members of the Senate and the remaining 120 members are elected directly by the citizens. Elections for both chambers of the Parliament are simultaneous and their members serve 5-year terms.

    Judicial branch: Egypt has 3 higher courts. The Supreme Constitutional Court has the authority to decide the constitutionality of laws. The Court of Cassation is the highest court of the common court system and the Supreme Administrative Court is the highest court of the administrative court system. After the constitutional amendments of 2019, the President of Egypt appoints the heads of the judicial authorities, the president of the Supreme Constitutional Court as well as the Prosecutor General.

    Parliamentary parties (seats): Future of the Nation (317), Republican People's party (49), New Wafd party (25), Homeland Defenders Party (23), Modern Egypt Party (13), Reform and Development Party (9), Egyptian Conference Party (8), Al-Nour Party (7), Egyptian Freedom Party (7), Egyptian Social Democratic Party (7), Tagammu (6), Justice Party (2), Eradet Geel Party, Independents (117)

    Last elections: Presidential elections 2018 – Abdel Fattah el-Sisi was elected with 97.08% while Moussa Mostafa Moussa received 2.92%. Voter turnout was 41.5%.
    Next elections: Parliamentary elections in 2025

    Rule of Law - Human Rights

    Corruption Perceptions Index (Transparency International)
    (2020 - position 117/180)

    Rule of Law Index (World Justice Project)
    (2020 - position 125/128)

    Global Terrorism Index (Institute for Economics & Peace)
    6.794/10 (2019 – position 11/163)

    Fragile States Index (Fund For Peace)
    (2021 – position 39/179)

    Democracy Index (Economist Intelligence Unit)
    (2020 – position 138/167)

    Press Freedom Index (Reporters Without Borders)
    (2020 – position 166/180)

    Freedom in the World Index (Freedom House)
    26/100 (2021)


    United Nations (UN – Population Division, UNdata, UNcomtrade), World Bank, Federal Reserve Economic Data (FRED – St. Louis Fed), International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA), Composition of Religious and Ethnic Group Project (CREG – Cline Center for Advanced Social Research, University of Illinois), Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), International Institute of Strategic Studies (IISS – Military Balance), Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU), NationMaster