The Mediterranean region is a geopolitical hotspot with economic, military, and ideological struggles. Dr. Karatrantos, Senior Research Fellow of the Institute, analyses that the MENA region (Middle East and North Africa) has faced the Arab Spring, declining oil prices, instability, and the COVID-19 crisis that led to uncertainty and instability, especially for young people. The Middle East and Africa deal with old and new threats, resulting in widespread insecurity and challenges include governance, demographics, economy, and ethnic/religious issues. Moreover, demographics and migration affect the region, impacting European security whereas natural disasters, conflicts, displacement, and poverty pose challenges worsened by climate change. Conflict and instability have led to mass displacement, creating challenges for affected and host countries. Extreme inequalities, marginalization, and radicalization result from instability. The COVID-19 worsened existing challenges, especially for young people and recent Russian aggression raises concerns about food security in the region. Addressing these issues is crucial for stability and prosperity.